It is generally accepted that biometrics are an effective means of identifying people, but most companies still rely on cards of various sorts and even passwords and PINs. Hi-Tech Security Solutions asked a few vendors involved in either card or biometric sales (or both) for their input on the use of these technologies in the market today. Are decisions based on price, technology or effectiveness? Where do these different identification mechanisms fit in and how are they being integrated into a complete identity solution.
The people we approached include:
* Walter Rautenbach from neaMetrics.
* Nicolas Garcia from Morpho South Africa.
* Ingo Mutinelli from Elvey Security Technologies.
* Greg Sarrail from Lumidigm, now part of HID Global.
* Deon van Rensburg from Virdi Africa.
* Hilary Dredge on behalf of Controlsoft Global.
Hi-Tech Security Solutions: The time of asking if biometrics work is long gone, we know it does work. How is the market accepting biometrics for access and other functions? Where are you seeing biometrics implemented?
Walter Rautenbach: The general acceptance of biometrics in South Africa and Africa is very good. South Africa, in particular, has a long history of leadership in biometric acceptance and this acceptance has been motivated by large scale biometric implementations, driven by government, in the area of social grant payments. These implementations have been taking place on a large scale since the 1990s and have even seen SA to be the first country in Africa to win the Smithsonian Award for application of technology to better the lives of the community in general.
This application of biometrics, ironically mostly for old age folk, made us well versed with biometric implementations and further applications in access control and T&A came naturally with very little resistance, compared to Europe for example.
These implementations are also a good example to refer to when talking cards and biometrics. Initial implementations relied on large databases of biometrics that had to be shipped with payment vehicles to enable biometric verification. The introduction of smartcards, holding beneficiary biometrics, had a massive impact on data management and enabled each person to carry their authentication data with them. Now we have in excess of 10 million such smartcards being used for financial transacting on a monthly basis for social grants alone. Not passing a biometric reader during a normal day is a rare event.
Hilary Dredge: Biometrics is now widely used in the security industry, either for single factor or multi-factor authentication. Furthermore, laptops are increasingly available with integrated fingerprint sensors to increase the security of the login process. Developments continue within the industry and more secure biometrics are now available such as finger vein readers, which some banks are investigating for authorisation of financial transactions.
There is still a lot of education to be done, however. The public is hesitant as for some it is a completely new experience. Change management has to be part of the implementation process to introduce the new way of clocking-in to employees as well as to explain the reasons why the business decided to go this route and how they will benefit from the system.
Deon van Rensburg: Biometrics is replacing RFID/keypad systems to a large extent. Very few access control solutions get deployed that do not have at least a single biometric device connected to it. The two major fields where biometrics are deployed is access control and time & attendance but we have however seen biometrics deployed in IT security, mobile applications, PLC and heavy machinery control and we even have a client that manufactures biometric devices that are used on trucks and TLB machinery on mines. A major push, especially from Virdi, has been to integrate with enterprise class access control systems that in turn integrate into security management platforms to provide the end-user a seamless security system without the need for different silos within the security set up.
Nicolas Garcia: The market has been increasingly accepting biometrics for access control, time and attendance and other security and identity management application across all industries in South Africa. It is also being accepted in the rest of Africa, although they are still significantly behind South Africa. Biometrics as a technology is accepted not only because it works, but also because it is convenient and makes the user’s life easier while providing security and added value like automatic logs, etc.
Ingo Mutinelli: Biometrics is being used everywhere. The technology is becoming more stable and reliable, and pricing is also coming down, making the product and its security offering really appealing to the end user. We are finding that biometrics is being used everywhere from high security access and exit points to non permanent sites where time and attendance is required. New biometrics are all the rage with walking/gait readers and smell sensors adding to the already interesting mix of available biometrics. Finger print readers are still however the main biometric used.
Greg Sarrail: Today, biometrics is used widely across various points of access. When convenient and secure authentication is required, only biometrics can provide assured verification of an individual’s identity. In the financial sector, fingerprint biometrics is used in bank branches to confirm an individual’s identity before any bank account is opened or changed. Fingerprint sensors are integrated into ATMs to reduce fraud and to provide a convenient means to authenticate before making a transaction. In healthcare, fingerprint biometrics is used for patient registration and by physicians who authorise prescriptions of controlled substances. In the enterprise, fingerprint biometrics has been used for years for physical access control. Even the top amusement parks in the world are using fingerprint biometrics to provide a more personalised and meaningful experience. In South Africa, the new SmartID card includes fingerprint biometric information on the card itself, providing endless options to verify an individual’s identity in finance, retail, hospitality and even the enterprise.
Hi-Tech Security Solutions: What advice do you give clients when they are considering cards or biometrics? Which is better suited to what environments/situations?
Walter Rautenbach: Everyone knows the value of biometrics against ‘card only’ systems. These days it is more a question of if it should be a card and biometrics system. Cards in conjunction with biometrics are being sold as higher security as it is ‘something you must have’, making it more difficult to breach. This is a trend that is seeing more and more popularity, especially in new large scale identity management systems involving logical access.
In logical access it makes more sense as the same card containing your biometric identity can also store electronic certificates that can be used to secure electronic transactions. In both logical and physical access, it assists in preventing large scale biometric data distribution as you can carry it with you.
When talking about the option of card only or biometrics the views are a bit different. It all depends on if you need a secure environment – if you need it to be secure then you need biometrics. You have to ask yourself, what are the risks if someone shares his card with someone else. If this has no or little risk then cards alone might still suffice.
Hilary Dredge: Each technology has their individual benefits. Biometrics are convenient as it is not possible to lose the credential, but authentication can be dependent on physical issues (e.g. users’ fingerprints can degrade on building sites). The major advantage of cards is that it is generally much quicker to scan a large database for a specific card than for a biometric template.
When using cards you are still not identifying the person, it is the card that is identified irrespective of who is using it. Cards can be lost, forgotten or stolen. Cards increase administrative functions and are a recurring cost where biometrics are a once-off cost and a one-time enrolment.
Deon van Rensburg: Biometrics will work in most environments due to the advancement of technologies such as multispectral response imaging and incorporating non-friction ridge features into the fingerprint template, e.g. scar tissue becomes an identifiable feature. There are however environments where biometrics are not ideal, such as abrasive or corrosive environments, environments with high moisture content or environments with a high heat content. In these environments we would suggest that the end-user invests in RFID technology, but keeps strict control of the use of the RFID system – pair it up with guarding or CCTV systems. This does not mean that there are not biometric solutions for these types of environments but it is a question of commercial viability i.e. capex versus advantages the system provides in its use.
Nicolas Garcia: The first advice we give clients is that they need to choose a technology that caters best for their needs and not the other way around. From our point of view, cards alone are long lived and cards can only be considered when coupled with biometrics in order to offer a dual security or to cater for those who cannot use the biometric system alone for various reasons, such as handicaps, etc.
The mere fact that a card can be lost, broken, stolen disqualify it from both a convenience and a security point of view if used alone. The second advice is to think long term. A card-based only solution could look more attractive at first sight, but once one adds the cost of maintenance, card replacement, etc. to the cost of ownership, the bride might not look so gorgeous anymore.
Ingo Mutinelli: The level of security and the site conditions are probably the most important factors to look at. Cards can be lost, borrowed, stolen and cloned, so biometrics serves better for higher security requirements. Some users of systems just don’t get biometrics and are afraid of the technology and don’t reliably use the system causing endless issues. In these cases card, tag or disk may be better. You can also use a combination of biometrics and card solutions to either enhance security or make use of a hybrid solution for a best for fit solution.
Greg Sarrail: Biometrics, the ‘who you are’ authentication factor, should be used whenever it is necessary to validate the identity of an individual with a high level of assurance. Biometrics is the most universal and secure form of personal identification. It can also be extremely convenient since the individual does not need to carry a card or token to authenticate.
Cards should be used whenever it is necessary to provide a visual element for authentication. Cards cannot only display a picture of the authorised individual, but also can provide physical access or be used as part of a two-factor authentication process.
Hi-Tech Security Solutions: Would you say that biometrics are easily integrated into other business and security functions? Are cards easier to integrate?
Walter Rautenbach: In my opinion biometrics are easier to implement and integrate than card systems. The main reason for this is that cards have quite a bit of overhead when it comes to managing issuance and validity. When you have a card system you must have some sort of management system that controls the validity and which will ensure that a lost card will only potentially have a negative influence on your security system for a short period of time. These days it is more common to see someone having a fingerprint reader integrated or plugged into their computer for logical access control than a card reader. Cards do however have the benefit of also being used as a visual identification medium where reading technology is not available. For example, mineworkers will in some cases be forced to have their card on them even if they use biometrics. The reason for this being that in the event of an accident it is easy to perform visual identification from a photo if they find your card on you.
Hilary Dredge: Within a security system, there is little difference in the ability to integrate biometrics or cards . In each case, once the card/biometric data has been enrolled, the operation of the system is no different.
Biometrics can be used to identify as well as verify an individual. We are starting to see more companies implementing biometrics for logical access control purposes to control who may have access to certain software applications on the server and who are authorised to sign certain transactions off, especially if you look at a payroll and HR environment. When cards are used for these type of functions a company is at high risk as cards can be lost, forgotten or stolen. When the card is used for identification purposes, the card is being identified by the system, not the person using it.
Deon van Rensburg: Card readers are definitely easier to integrate, but that would be a simplistic answer. One has to compare the complexities of the devices to rate how easy or difficult it is to integrate. RFID card readers are at best simplistic devices that makes decisions based on a simple numerical or hexadecimal code and a standard Wiegand interface. Biometrics on the other hand uses complex mathematical equations to extract and match unique characteristics. Each vendor has its own algorithms that it uses to accomplish this task and with that there is an inherent software suite that needs to be considered as well.
Integrating biometric devices into other systems can happen one of two ways. The first is a simple software bridge that operates between the device and the third-party process such as LDAP and Active Directory or an access control system. Virdi has for instance written such a software bridge called QEManager to be able to interface between Virdi devices and different access control solutions. This allows the installer to easily integrate the Virdi devices into a third-party access control system while using a familiar Wiegand interface to accomplish communication between the disparate systems.
The second is much more complex as the software SDK is used to incorporate the extraction and matching functions into the software of the third-party system. This means a lot of development as not only the algorithm but also functionality that is embedded in the biometric device needs to be incorporated in order to utilise the biometric device to its fullest capability. Dependent on the level of integration, this can be a process that takes days, but sometimes even years are involved and specialist software knowledge is required.
Nicolas Garcia: From a technology point of view, integration is neither easier nor more difficult on any of these technologies. Manufacturer such as Morpho can provide system integrators with the relevant tools and support in order to integrate the technology. I imagine that a card system manufacturer can do the same.
Because investments can sometime be quite considerable, it is of utmost importance to consider backward compatibility as well as future evolution potential of a solution. This is what will ensure that a system can be maintained and updated for a reasonably long life span.
Ingo Mutinelli: Cards are easier from an implementation and usage point of view, but biometrics offers greater security.
Greg Sarrail: Cards have been used for physical access control for over 30 years and are easily integrated with physical access systems and, more recently, with network applications and for transaction-based authentication. Biometrics was initially limited to forensic applications and use by law-enforcement. The last year has seen a large increase in adoption due to enterprise and mobile platforms. The ease of integration depends entirely on the use model. Both authentication methods require a back-end system to manage the identity information. For logical access control, both cards and biometrics can leverage Active Directory or identity management platforms to enrol, store and validate user identities. Large national biometric ID programs typically leverage an identity database and require a thoughtful architecture to provide the widest use across multiple channels.
Hi-Tech Security Solutions: How can users/buyers be sure that they choose the right biometric system? We have heard that the iPhone’s and Samsung S5’s biometric readers were hacked, so what steps do users need to take to ensure they get a quality biometric solution and not something easily hacked?
Walter Rautenbach: Biometric authentication has an ‘easy to use’ element to it. At the end of the day it is still technology and there seems to be many tech and security junkies with too much time on hand that will find ways to break the technology. The question that should be asked is what is the payoff for the intruder finding a way to hack the biometrics’.
Hackable biometrics will still in 99.99% of the time serve the purpose it is intended for. For example, if the purpose is to control employee time or access it will cause extreme queues if everyone is trying to open the door with a silicon finger, which is really not that easy to use to bypass the system. Where security is of utmost importance, it is better to introduce multiple factors such as combining it with card and/or PIN or even multi-modal biometrics to make it harder to hack.
Ironically, when you restart your new iPhone, it will force you to enter your PIN, shifting the responsibility back to the user and ‘what they know’ rather than relying on the biometrics. There are however different technologies such as ‘live finger detection’ that makes hacking fingerprints more difficult and then there are different types of biometrics such as iris recognition, which is even more difficult to hack. The question is if the additional cost justifies the particular implementation.
Hilary Dredge: Once a security system enrols biometric data, the information is encoded into a template such that it is not possible to ascertain the original data from the template. For example, I know that 6 + 4 = 10 but knowing that the answer is 10 does not help to work out what the question was. It could have been 1+9 or 2+8 or even 5x2. Biometric only readers will usually record these templates in the reader, whereas card + biometric readers will often store the template on the user’s card. There are no significant pros and cons to either method.
When users are considering biometrics as an alternative to their current system or as a new way of recording information, the following should be considered and asked to get the best biometric products in the market with the best rated algorithms.
Deon van Rensburg: Unfortunately, as with everything else in life, not all things are equal. The differentiating factor is the technologies being used and self-education by the end user. Two technologies assist with the choice: 1) the scanning technology and 2) Live and Fake Fingerprint Detection or LFD for short.
The issue with the Samsung and Apple biometric débâcles was that very old technology without LFD was used. This was a test run for them and both companies have indicated an expansion of the biometric use within their products. The biometric devices also weren’t hacked but fell victim to fake fingerprints or ‘spoofing’ – a not too uncommon occurrence in the biometric field and a shockingly easy feat to accomplish especially if you have willing participants that are users on the biometric system that is to be bypassed.
The scanning technology is important since thermal swipe and capacitive swipe technologies have been all but abandoned by the biometric industry as insecure and pedantic. Most vendors now use optical scanning technologies as a standard. However, within this field there are also two very similar but vastly different scanning technologies. FTIR – Frustrated Total Internal Reflection and multispectral response imaging.
FTIR, as a base description of how it operates, uses a red or green LED to illuminate the valley of the friction ridge (loops, whirls, arches etc.) of the fingerprint to generate an image that is then extracted by the algorithm and in turn matched to the template that is on the database connected to the user’s profile. The issue with FTIR is that it relies on the skins ability to absorb the light from the illuminating LED and is strongly influenced by skin condition. It is extremely susceptible to ‘spoofing’ and is explained best by Dr S Li: “On the other hand, moulding the shape of the ridge-valley pattern with special materials (latex, silicon, etc.) and touching the platen with it produces an image that cannot be distinguished by the image obtained by the real ridge-valley pattern (spoofing)”, Encyclopaedia of Biometrics, p570, Springer 2009.
Multispectral response imaging works similarly to FTIR, however the friction ridge is exposed to an array of illuminating LED in different colours. This results in the light being absorbed into the skin of the friction ridge and by polarising the reflecting light before being captured and extracted into a template, the system is able to distinguish between real and spoofed fingerprints apart from being able to capture more unique characteristics than FTIR.
LFD is the final key component. Some vendors achieve LFD via their algorithm and some achieve LFD via the scanning technology they use. Virdi however has designed a patented process around LFD – from checking for capacitive discharge from a live finger, the multispectral response imaging to the way the algorithm operates to extract and match the fingerprint templates.
Nicolas Garcia: Many myths and urban legends are circulating about biometrics and this is nothing new. The exposure of Apple and Samsung merely brought the topic back on the front of the scene, but this is beyond the point. Biometric is only one part of a global system and therefore we encourage customers to seek professional advice and to get a second opinion if they are not sure or don’t feel confident.
Reputable manufacturers will be able to propose different models which can go from a secure and convenient product to very secure products where a trade-off with convenience of use is sometimes required.
Ingo Mutinelli: The reader itself, unless networked is pretty secure. There are however different sensors in the reader that make them more reliable. In terms of hacking a reader for the database, this would depend on the security levels of the network and if there are sufficient firewalls and protection in place. There are also encryption methods for databases and pathway security measures that are embedded to increase the security level. As always, the backbone/network behind the actual device is often as important, if not more so from a security standpoint, than the actual device.
Greg Sarrail: Biometric sensors should be evaluated based on their performance: their ability to authenticate authorised users as well as detect attempts to fool the system. Performance should be assessed by evaluating which sensors work best with the broadest number of individuals in real world environments that can be wet, dry and dirty. Top-of-the-line biometric sensors can now offer field-upgradable liveness detection capabilities which can identify real human tissue as authentic and detect fraudulent materials in addition to offering tamper-resistant capabilities at the sensor level. This ability to respond to new threats and vulnerabilities is an important new development that will future-proof investments and continue to provide the required security and convenience necessary to sustain the technology.
Hi-Tech Security Solutions: What about cards? Which cards are most commonly used? We also know of cards that have been hacked, so what can users do to make sure their card of choice is secure?
Walter Rautenbach: Hacking of cards is more popular where the information on the card is of importance – like when you store your biometric information on there or where it contains digital certificates or keys which are used to secure electronic transacting. There are also some highly advanced cards in play these days such as HID ICLASS SE which can be loaded with a myriad of security layers that can control the origin of the card, the data on the card as well as what the data is used for. In the end, it is important to look at the role of the card within the system and match that importance up with the total cost of the system.
Hilary Dredge: There are two basic types of card – 125 kHz (prox, HID prox etc) and 13.65 MHz (MIFARE, DESFire, iCLASS etc.). 125 kHz is a lower cost solution whereas 13.56 MHz offers higher security. It is true that some card formats such as MIFARE Classic have been hacked, but security is a fluid environment where new developments occur frequently leading to ever more secure formats (DESFire being more secure than MIFARE Plus which is more secure than MIFARE Classic). If anyone has concerns about cards being hacked, we would certainly recommend using multi-factor authentication, whereby if one factor is potentially compromised, the risk is offset by use or a second (e.g biometric) or third (e.g. PIN) factor.
Deon van Rensburg: In SA, 125 kHz RFID cards are still mainstream simply due to the pricing of the individual cards and pricing of the readers. We will however see a growth in demand for 13.56 MHz smart card technology when the POPI Act comes into effect. 125 kHz cards do not comply with ISO 27001 while 13.56 MHz cards do comply since the cards’ information can be encrypted. Many of the provisions of ISO 27001 can be seen within the POPI Act and it will become the driving force behind information security.
Worldwide, HID has been the pace setter for RFID card technology and iClass is well known for its security features. However, HID is reportedly following a new tactic and its CEOS technology (utilising NFC and security certificates) and new all-purpose card readers will certainly shake up the RFID market. If successful the RFID market as we know it will be completely transformed and we as a vendor that incorporates multiple technologies into a single device are waiting anxiously to see which direction it is moving in.
Nicolas Garcia: Cards like any piece of technology nowadays are subject to hacking. In theory, this is only a matter of time before somebody finds a way of hacking the system. This is true with all types of cards and what matters is how swiftly and seriously the manufacturers deal with the issue. Generally, the minimum expected is for the security of the card to be enhanced regularly as well as the firmware (embedded software) of the readers to be updated.
It is therefore also important for end-users to choose reputable technology partners which will be able to assist them appropriately and timeously today as well as tomorrow.
Greg Sarrail: Access control technology has evolved from HID Prox cards (which are based on 30-year-old 125 kHz RFID technology) to new, more secure contactless smartcard technologies based on a trusted framework of devices. While Prox cards are still used in many basic security applications, our customers who need stronger security have been going through a refresh and migration process for the last several years to our more powerful and versatile solutions to meet their needs.
A similar trend is underway with payment card technology, which is migrating from magstripe to chip-based cards for higher security. Regardless of which card technology is used, however, it is also important to keep in mind that access control cards and readers are only one aspect of a facility security system, and that the most effective security is achieved by a layered approach.
Hi-Tech Security Solutions: What are the latest developments in biometric and/or card technology in the market today?
Walter Rautenbach: We like the new HID iCLASS SE technology. This is ideal when it comes to high security implementations using biometrics and cards. It offers secure data storage, implementation lock-down and multiple application area’s which provide rich functionality to allow multiple usage of such cards across the enterprise. Suprema was the first to embrace this technology with its BioEntry W and BioEntry Plus biometric readers that fully support the iCLASS SE card system. It future-proofs access control infrastructures while simplifying how identities are created, used and managed, across a broad continuum of application requirements. With the iCLASS SE access control platform, enterprises and organisations have the assurance that their investments in today’s technologies can be leveraged in the future.
Hilary Dredge: Biometric techniques continue to develop with enhancements to iris identification and the introduction of finger and vein pattern recognition. Card technology is moving toward mobile device technology, where a user’s access control credentials can be remotely downloaded to their mobile phone. The mobile phone is then presented to the reader using NFC or BLE.
This is enabled via technology such as Secure Identity Objects whereby a number of independent but associated data objects for physical access control items (e.g. card number, finger print template etc) are stored in one secure entity on a smartcard or mobile phone. SEOS enables smartcards and mobile devices to hold dual identities in a single credential employing strong authentication and data confidentiality for added security. This provides a single credential to offer a true ‘one card’ solution for physical and logical access control applications.
Deon van Rensburg: There is going to be a shift for biometric vendors to supply all-encompassing solutions that will work in any environment. Using a single biometric technology to achieve this is almost impossible
Virdi is placing a lot of emphasis during R&D onto multimodal authentication systems. We are in the final stages of testing our new AC7000 biometric terminal that will use facial recognition, fingerprint authentication, RFID and keypad that can be used as a single authentication technology or as a combination of technologies. To be able to achieve this – mostly due to constraints in processor power and memory capacity – we developed the terminal on a native Android operating system.
To increase the usage of the fingerprint biometrics we are including a PIV rated fingerprint scanning device with the normal LFD technology embedded as standard which will allow for up to a 98% usage rate versus the 95% that is an industry standard. On the facial recognition front we have re-engineered the algorithm to incorporate a hybrid 2D/3D facet that will look at facial planes and contours in a bid to combat spoofing. The actual conversion of the facial features into a template is achieved by using IR technology which lessens the impact environmental lighting and facial feature changes i.e. beards, spectacles etc. has on the system.
The second motivating factor for us as Virdi is the convergence of different technologies. To this end we are developing a door controller with an 8-zone supervised intruder detection system on-board that will be armed/disarmed from the biometric device. It will use normal intrusion detection products such as PIR, Active Beams, reed switches and remotes. Coupled onto this we are developing a new software suite that will enable the recording of the ONVIF stream from IP cameras while managing the access control and intruder detection system. The door controller will utilise the patented RS-485 encrypted rolling code technology which means that the biometric device can be installed some distance from the controller while remaining secure.
Lastly, we are looking towards the residential/SOHO market as adapters of biometric technology. Very few homeowners will invest in biometric technology purely based on price and the infrastructure required to operate the system. To that end we have developed a basic stand-alone biometric device that uses our patented technologies, such as LFD, but communicates to a smart phone via Bluetooth for management.
Nicolas Garcia: Fingerprint biometrics are fairly well accepted on the market and new needs are coming up all the time. The trend today is mobility and we just released a new biometric based tablet called MorphoTablet. This ensure a maximum level of security with all the convenience of a tablet. It embeds all the latest technologies like fingerprint reader, face detection, contact/contactless cards, 3G, GRPS, GPS, Cameras, SAM and SIM Cards, etc. It also uses a crypto processor to ensure data is not compromised. Morpho is also growing its contactless biometric offer with 3D Face which not only performs face recognition but ensure that the presented face is a genuine face and not a simple 2D picture.
Finally, Morpho is introducing its Finger-On-The-Fly (FOTF) reader which allows, by a swipe of the hand (contactless), the capture and processing of four fingerprints at a time within less than two seconds.
Ingo Mutinelli: Using known and trusted brands are always the safer bet. Using the Impro range of biometric or card solutions that not only have a pedigree in terms of security quality, but also time in the market certainly makes a difference. Speaking to a knowledgeable supplier and designing a system fit for the specific site requirement is critical, as the hardware on its own is limited to how the system is set up.
Greg Sarrail: As mentioned in the previous question, the latest innovations in fingerprint biometrics relate to the security of the device and its ability to provide secure authentication with convenient and intuitive access. Lumidigm’s V-Series fingerprint sensors prevent unauthorised access with liveness detection and tamper resistance, and provide the most reliable means to conveniently authenticate an individual.
While in the past cards and biometrics have provided different benefits for access, these two worlds are starting to converge. The new South African SmartID card incorporates biometric information within a contactless card. New fingerprint sensor technology will be able to match data on the card with fingerprint data in a single sensor. The ability to manage digital credentials on cards via biometrics and even virtual credentials on smart devices are all important components of delivering complete identity solutions in this digital world. Beyond creating and sourcing these components, the ability to authenticate that the card or virtual credential is genuine and that the person presenting those credentials is who they claim to be will soon become the standard by which vendors and identity and access programs will be judged.
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